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Common Causes of Spine Pain

Degenerative Disc Disease

A degenerative disc can occur through an injury, or simple wear and tear on the spine which comes with age. Degenerative discs are often seen in the general population, and despite the high prevalence, their clinical effect can be unclear.

Video Transcript

This condition is a weakening of one or more vertebral discs, which normally act as a cushion between the vertebrae. This condition can develop as a natural part of the aging process, but it may also result from injury to the back.

 

Degenerative disc disease typically begins when small tears appear in the disc wall, called the annulus. These tears can cause pain.

 

When the tears heal, creating scar tissue that is not as strong as the original disc wall. If the back is repeatedly injured, the process of tearing and scarring may continue, weakening the disc wall.

 

Over time, the nucleus (or center) of the disc becomes damaged and loses some of its water content. This center is called the pulposus, and its water content is needed to keep the disc functioning as a shock absorber for the spine.

 

Unable to act as a cushion, the nucleus collapses. The vertebrae above and below this damaged disc slide closer together. This improper alignment causes the facet joints - the areas where the vertebral bones touch - to twist into an unnatural position.

 

In time, this awkward positioning of the vertebrae may create bone spurs. If these spurs grow into the spinal canal, they may pinch the spinal cord and nerves (a condition called spinal stenosis). The site of the injury may be painful.